What Are Capacitors?
Capacitors, or condensers, can be defined as a electrical components which are used for storing charge in an electrical field. In professional terms, this is a device which simulates the functions of battery at micro level in an electrical circuit.
How Capacitors works?
In basic terms, the common audio capacitor manufactures produces components which works on the concepts of potential difference. When there is difference in electrical potential of two conductors, the electric field develops. Due to this, the positive charge deposits on one conductor, leaving negative charge on another. This makes it to store energy which is utilized in various ways in electrical & electronic circuits.
Types of Common Conductors
The commonly used capacitors are described here briefly along with pros & cons.
Metalized Film Capacitor
In Metalized Film Capacitor, thin metal film is used as the capacitor through which current is passed.
Pros - These are smaller in size as thin film is used in place of conducting plates.
Cons - Thin films reduces current carrying capacity to a remarkable extend, thus limiting its capabilities.
Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitor
Bi-Polar Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitor Manufacturers produce capacitors with aluminum electrolyte in order to improve efficiency.
Pros - Durable, stable electrical parameters, Lower ESR
Cons - Low Voltage & Limited transient, lower reverse voltage tolerance, can burst in extreme parameters
Non Polar Electrolytic Capacitor
None Polar Electrolytic Capacitor Suppliers often adds special chemical to improve performance of capacitors. However, they still suffer from certain major disadvantages.
Pros - Size is smaller, good for long term use, stable on voltage fluctuations
Cons - can't tolerate extreme voltage, current carrying capacity is limited, can explode upon excessive heating
Audio Capacitor is not a special category of division. Instead, it is a commercial name for those capacitors which are used for audio circuits. One can fit any suitable capacitor as per the needs & purpose of circuit.
Film Capacitor is a special type in which thin film is used to replace solid conductor plates of traditional style capacitors. This makes size extremely portable & increases the durability as well. However, certain drawbacks are still attached with it.
Pros - size is small, fit for micro size circuits, predictable & stable behavior in various cases
Cons - self hearting, overheating on high voltage, limited current carrying ability
In broad terms, electrolyte capacitor plays a vital role. This is used as the standard to test other capacitors. Also, it is basic level capacitor which is commonly used in labs for elementary experiments.
Pros - Large voltage carrying capacity, reliable results, stable behavior, cost effective
Cons - Leakage in most cases, require care & maintenance, overheating on wrong polarization, failure on wrong use
Speaker Capacitor is more an application than being a specific type. So, no specific pros & cons can be talked about. However, they are limited in their action of current carrying. Applying excessive voltage may lead to failure.